Câu trực tiếp gián tiếp tiếng anh

     

CÂU TƯỜNG THUẬTCâu trần thuật (câu con gián tiếp) là câu dùng để thuật lại ngôn từ của lời nói trực tiếp


a.

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Nếu hễ từ bỏ của mệnh đề trần thuật dùng ngơi nghỉ thì bây giờ thì lúc đổi sang câu loại gián tiếp ta chỉ đổi ngôi; không thay đổi thì của đụng từ bỏ cùng trạng trường đoản cú.

b. Nếu động tự của mệnh đề trần thuật dùng nghỉ ngơi thì thừa khđọng thì lúc gửi thanh lịch câu con gián tiếp ta thay đổi ngôi, thì của động trường đoản cú, trạng tự chỉ thời hạn cùng xứ sở.


I. Tgiỏi thay đổi ngôi (Đại từ nhân xưng, Đại từ cài cùng Tính tự ssinh hoạt hữu)

1. Ngôi lắp thêm nhất: nhờ vào công ty từ của mệnh đề tường thuật; thường xuyên đảo sang ngôi thiết bị ba

I → He / She me → hlặng / her my → his / her


Ex: He said: “I learned English.”

→ He said that he had learnt English.

Ex: She said khổng lồ me, “My mother gives me a present.”

→ She told me that her mother gave her a present.

2. Ngôi trang bị hai: (You, your)

– Xét ý nghĩa của câu và thay đổi mang đến phù hợp, hay đổi nhờ vào túc từ của mệnh đề tường thuật

Ex: Mary said: “You are late again.”


Ex: “I will meet you at the airport”, he said khổng lồ me.

→ He told me that he would meet me at the airport.


DIRECT

INDIRECT

Simple presentV1 /Vs(es)Simple pastV2/ V-ed
Present progressiveam/ is/ are + V-ingPast progressivewas/ were + V-ing
Present perfecthave / has + P.PPast perfecthad + P.P
Present perfect progressivehave sầu / has been +V-ingPast perfect progressivehad been + V-ing
Simple pastV2 / -edPast perfecthad + P..P
Past progressivewas / were + V-ingPast perfect progressivehad been + V-ing
Simple futurewill + V1Future in the pastwould + V1
Future progressivewill be + V-ingFuture progressive in the pastwould be + V-ing
Modal Verb

canMayMusthave/has to

Modal Verb in the Past

couldMightHad toHad to


III. Thay thay đổi những trạng từ bỏ chỉ thời hạn với địa điểm chốn:


DIRECTINDIRECT
Now/ Here/ ThisThen/ There/ That
TheseThose
TodayThat day
YesterdayThe day before / the previous day
Last yearThe year before / the previous year

Tonight

That night
TomorrowThe following day / the next day/ the day after
Next monthThe following month / the next month
Agobefore
The day before yesterdayTwo day before
The day before tomorrowTwo day after

CÁC THAY ĐỔI CỤ THỂ CHO TỪNG LOẠI CÂU TRONG LỜI NÓI GIÁN TIẾP

1. COMMANDS / REQUESTS (Câu trách nhiệm, câu đề nghị)


 – Mệnh lệnh khẳng định:

Direct: S + V + O: “V1 + O …”

Indirect: S + asked / told + O + to-inf + ….

Ex: He said to her: “Keep silent, please.”

→ He told her to lớn keep silent.

“Wash your hands before having dinner, Lan.” the mother said.

→ The mother told Lan khổng lồ wash her hands before having dinner.

 

– Mệnh lệnh bao phủ định:

Direct: S + V + O: “Don’t + V1 + …”

Indirect: S + asked / told + O + not + to-inf ….

Ex: “Don’t forget to lớn phone me this afternoon,” he said.

→ He reminded me to lớn phone him that afternoon.

The teacher said to lớn the students: “Don’t talk in the class.”

→ The teacher told the students not to talk in the class.

 

Tùy theo ngữ chình ảnh trong tiếng nói cồn trường đoản cú tường thuật said hoặc said to rất có thể thay đổi told, asked, advised, persuaded, directed, begged, encouraged, remind

Ex: The doctor said khổng lồ his patient: “Do exercise regularly.”

→ The doctor advised his patient lớn vì chưng exercise regularly.


2. STATEMENT (Câu nai lưng thuật)

Direct: S + V + (O) : “clause”

Indirect: S + told / said + (O) + (that) + clause

Note: said khổng lồ → told

Ex: Tom said, “I want to lớn visit my frikết thúc this weekend.”

→ Tom said (that) he wanted lớn visit his friend that weekend.

She said to me, “I am going to lớn Dalat next summer.”

→ She told me (that) she was goingto Dalat the following summer.


3. QUESTIONS (Câu hỏi)

a. Yes – No question

Direct: S + V + (O) : “Aux. V + S + V1 + ….?”

Indirect: S + asked + O + if / whether + S + V + ….

Ex: He asked: “Have sầu you ever been khổng lồ nhật bản, Mary?”

→ He asked Mary if / whether she had ever been to lớn Japan.

“Did you go out last night, Tan?” I asked

→ I asked Tan if / whether he had gone out the night before.


b. Wh – question

Direct: S + V + (O): “Wh- + Aux. V + S + V1 + …?”


Indirect: S + asked + O + Wh- + S + V + ….

Ex: “How long are you waiting for the bus?” he asked me.

→ He asked me how long I was waiting for the bus.

4. DANH ĐỘNG TỪ (V-ING) TRONG LỜI NÓI GIÁN TIẾP

lúc khẩu ca thẳng là lời kiến nghị , chúc mừng, cảm ơn, xin lỗi, …động từ bỏ tường thuật với danh cồn từ bỏ (V-ing) theo sau nó thường được dùng để gửi cài đặt ngôn từ khẩu ca bên trên.


a. Reporting Verb + V-ing + ….

Deny (che nhận), admit (thừa nhận), suggest (đề nghị), regret (nuối tiếc), appreciate (Reviews cao, cảm kích)

Ex: Peter said: “I didn’t steal the painting.”

→ Peter denied stealing the painting.

“Why don’t we go out for a walk?” said the boy.


→ The boy suggested going out for a walk.

b. Reporting Verb + (Someone) + Preposition + V-ing + ….

– thank someone for (cám ơn ai về ….)

– accuse someone of (buộc tội ai về …)

– congratulate someone on (chúc mừng ai về ….)

– warn someone against (cảnh báo ai về ….)

– dream of (mơ về …)

– object to (chống đối về ….)

– apologize someone for (xin lỗi ai về …)

– insist on (nhất định dòi …)

– complain about (phàn nàn về ….)

Ex: “I’m happy lớn know that you win the game. Congratulations!”, Jyên ổn said to Mary.

→ Jlặng congratulated Mary on winning the game.

Daisy said: “Thank you for helping me”

→ Daisy thanked me for helping her.

Note:

1. Why don’t you / Why not / How about  suggested + (someone) + V-ing …

Ex: “Why don’t you skết thúc her some flowers?” he said.

→ He suggested me sending her some flowers.


2. Let’s  →  suggested + V-ing …

Let’s not  suggested + not + V-ing …

Ex: “Let’s meet outside the cinema,” he said.

→ He suggested meeting outside the cinema.

She said: “Let’s not talk about that problem again.”

→ She suggested not talking about that problem again.


3. Shall we / It’s a good idea suggested + V-ing …

Ex: “It’s a good idea to lớn go for a picnic this weekkết thúc,” she said.

→ She suggested going for a picnic that weekover.


5. ĐỘNG TỪ NGUYÊN MẪU (TO-INFINITIVE) TRONG LỜI NÓI GIÁN TIẾP

lúc tiếng nói loại gián tiếp là 1 lời kiến nghị, mệnh lệnh, ý muốn, lời hứa hẹn, đòi hỏi, …hễ từ bỏ trần thuật cùng với hễ từ ngulặng chủng loại theo sau nó thường xuyên được dùng làm gửi cài ngôn từ khẩu ca này.

a. Reporting Verb + To-inf …

– agree demand (đòi hỏi) guarantee (bảo đảm)


– hope promise swear (thề)

– threaten (nạt dọa) volunteer offer (chỉ dẫn đề nghị)

– refuse consent (bằng lòng) decide

Ex: “I will give sầu you my book if you need it,” said my frikết thúc.


→ My friover offered khổng lồ give me her book if I needed it.

b. Reporting Verb + Object + To-inf …

– ask (bảo, yêu thương cầu) advise (khuyên) comm& (ra lệnh)


– expect (hy vọng đợi) instruct (phía dẫn) invite (mời)
– order (ra lệnh) persuade (ttiết phục) recommover (khuyên)
– remind (nhắc nhở) encourage (cổ vũ) tell (bảo)
– urge (thúc giục) warn (cảnh báo) want (mong muốn, mong muốn muốn)

Ex: “Don’t forget lớn lock the door,” I said lớn my sister.

 I reminded my sister khổng lồ lock the door.

Ann said: “Come to lớn my place whenever you are miễn phí.”

Ann invited me to come khổng lồ her place whenever I was miễn phí.


Note:

1. Lời đề nghị:Would you / Could you / Will you / Can you  → asked + someone + to-infWould you mind / Do you mind + V-ing  → asked + someone + to-inf

Ex: “Can you read the instructions again?” she said.


→ She asked me lớn read the instructions again.

He said: “Would you mind opening the door, please?”


→ He asked me khổng lồ open the door.

===========================

Các trường thích hợp ko đổi thì


– Sự thật, sự việc luôn luôn đúng:


“The earth moves round the sun” he said.

–> He said that the earth moves round the sun.

They said: “Sai Gon is busier than Hanoi ”

–>They said Sai Gon is busier than Hanoi.

Lưu ý:không cần sử dụng say + somebody nhưng dùng tell + sometoàn thân hay say something to lớn somebody.


Câu điều kiện một số loại II với III:

“If I were you, I would leave sầu here” he said.

–> He said that if he were me, he would leave sầu there.


– Wish + past simple/ past perfect:


“I wish I lived in Da Nang”, he said.

–> He said he wished he lived in Da Nang.


– Cấu trúc “it’s time somebody did something”:


“It’s time he woke up”, she said.

–> She said it was time he woke up.


– Would/ should/ ought to/ had better/ used khổng lồ ko chuyển:


“ You’d better work hard” he said

–> He said that I had better work hard.


Các cách đổi khác cơ bản

A. Say that + a statement–> agree (đồng ý), refuse (từ chối), offer (đề nghị), promise (hứa), threaten (dọa) + the infinitive


“All right, I’ll help you” he said.

–> He agreed khổng lồ help me.

“ Oh, no, I won’t come lớn your party”, he said.

–> He refused to lớn come khổng lồ my tiệc nhỏ.

“I’ll look for the cat for you tomorrow if you like” he said.

–> He offered lớn look after the mèo for me the next day if I liked.

“I’ll visit your parents when I arrive there”, he said

–> He promised khổng lồ visit my parents when he arrived there.

“I’ll sell the TV phối if you keep on watching it all day”, said the father

–> The father threatened to lớn sell the TV set if he kept on watching it all day


B. Say that + a statement–> accuse …of (buộc tội), admit (thừa nhận), apologise for (xin lỗi), deny (tự chối), insist on + V-ing (khăng khăng)


“You stole the jewels” said the inspector

–> The inspector accused her of stealing the jewels.

“I’ve sầu made the wall dirty” said one student.

–> One student admitted making the wall dirty.

“I’m sorry I’m late” she said.

–> She apologized for being late.

“No, we didn’t enter the garden” said the boy.

–> The boy denied entering my garden.

“Certainly, I’ll buy that oto for you”, said he.

–> He insisted on buying me that car.


C. Say to somebody + a statement –> told somebody toàn thân + that + clause


“I’ve sầu finished all my homework”, he said to me.

–> He told me that he had finished all his homework.


D. Say + a statement –> said that + clause


“I’m going to Hanoi tomorrow”, he said.

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–> He said that he was going to Hanoi the next day.


E. Statement with command, request, advice, invitation, offer –> advise, ask, beg, encourage, invite, order, tell, warn, remind…


“You’d better hurry”, he said.

–> He advised me khổng lồ hurry.

“Post the letter for me, will you?”he said.

–> He asked me to post the letter for him.

“Make another try, please”, he said.

–> He encouraged me khổng lồ make another try

“Don’t drive sầu too fast”, he said.

–> He warned me not to lớn drive too fast.

“Rethành viên khổng lồ cthua the door”, he said.

–> He reminded me khổng lồ cthua kém the door.

“Don’t forget khổng lồ come at 6 a.m tomorrow”, he said.

–> He reminded to come at 6 a.m the next day.


F. Questions in indirect speech


– Thời, đại tự, tính từ download, trạng từ bỏ chuyển như sinh hoạt câu tường thuật.

– Yes-no questions –> asked/wanted (khổng lồ know) if/whether


“Are you absent from your classes today?” he asked.

–> He asked/wanted khổng lồ know if I was absent from my classes that day.


– Wh-questions –> asked/wanted (to know) + question word + clause.


“Where vày you often meet your friends?” she said.

–> She asked where I often met my friends.


G. Questions with “shall I…”–> 4 các loại sau:


• About future sự kiện (sự khiếu nại vào tương lai)


“Shall we attover the meeting tomorrow”, she said.

–>She asked if they would attover the meeting the next day


• Request for instruction or advice (Lời lý giải hoặc lời khuyên)


“Shall I read it, mother?” he said.

–> He asked his mother if he should read it.


• Offer to lớn bởi vì something


“Shall we bring you some new books?” she said.

–> She offered to lớn bring me some new books.


• Suggest lớn vì chưng something


“Shall we go lớn the cinema tonight”, he said.

–> He suggested going to lớn the cinema that night.


H. Questions with “Will you, would you, could you…?” (yêu cầu, đề xuất, mời)–> offer, invite, order, ask, told.


“ Will you come to my tiệc nhỏ tomorrow?” he said.

–> He invited me lớn come to his các buổi tiệc nhỏ the next day.

“Could you get ready at 6p.m tonight?” he said.

–> He told/asked me to lớn get ready at 6p.m that night.

“Would you like some cigarettes?” he said.

–> He offered me some cigarettes.

“Will you shut your mouth?” he said.

–> He ordered me to lớn shut my mouth.


I. Let’s do…–> suggest + V-ing(trường hợp bao hàm toàn bộ cơ thể nói thực hiện hành động)

Let’s do…–> suggest + that Subject should do…(rất có thể bao hàm hoặc ko bao hàm bạn nói thựchiện nay hành động)


“Let’s go khổng lồ the cinema tonight”, he said.

–> He suggested going to the cinema that night. (anh ta cũng đi)

–> He suggested that they should go to lớn the cinema that night


J. Yes, let’s do…–> agree

No, let’s not do… –> be against the idea.


“Let’s eat out tonight” said the mother.

“Yes, let’s” said the son.

“No, let’s not” said the father.

–> The mother suggested eating out that night and the son agreed but the father was against the idea.


K. Must –> had to


“I must finish my work tomorrow”, he said.

–> He said that he had lớn finish his work the next day.

“Must you go soon?” she said.

–> He asked if I had to lớn go soon.


L. Câu cảm thán trong tiếng nói con gián tiếp


• What + a + noun! /how + adj

–> said that + clause

–> gave an exclamation of delight (phấn kích, tán thưởng), disgust (kinh tởm), honor (sợ), surprise (ngạc nhiên)


“How beautiful the picture is”, he said.

–> He said that the picture was beautiful

–> He gave sầu an exclamation of delight.

“What a dirty kitchen!” she said.

–> She said that the kitchen was dirty.

–> She gave sầu an exclamation of disgust.

“How wonderful”, he said.

–> He said that it was wonderful.

–> He gave an exclamation of surprise.


N. “Yes/no” –> subject + trợ đụng từ


“Have you finished your homework?”he said

“Yes”, she said

–> He asked her if she had finished her homework và she said she had.

“Are you ready for the exam?” he said.

“No”, she said.

–> He asked if she was ready for the exam & she said she wasn’t.


M. “Thank”–> subject + thanked


“Would you lượt thích khổng lồ have dinner with me tonight?”, he said. “thank you, I’d love sầu to” she said.

–> He invited her lớn have sầu dinner with hlặng that night. She thanked hyên ổn và said she would love sầu lớn.

“Good luck”, he said –> he wished me luông chồng.

“Congratulation!”, he said –> he congratulated me.


———————–

Bài tập: Chuyển đông đảo câu sau lịch sự con gián tiếp.

1. “Shall I help you with the exercises?” he said.

2. “Shall we give hyên a birthday cake?” he said.

3. “Could I leave early on Friday?” he said.

4. “Where shall we meet tonight?” she said.

5. “Will you have sầu a drink?” he said.

6. “How far is it from here to lớn college?” he said.

7. “Do you often have sầu breakfast at 6.30 a.m?” he said

8. “Don’t swlặng too far, boys” she said.

9. “Do come in & have a drink” he said.

10. “Rethành viên lớn wake me up” she said.

11. “If I were you, I would learn English”, she said.

12. “Why don’t we go camping this Sunday?” he said.

13. “Would you lượt thích lớn come to lớn my birthday các buổi party next Sunday?” she said.

14. “Let’s have sầu a talk on the new film”, he said.

15. “ Shall I bởi vì the cleaning up for you?” he said.

16. “What a clever boy!” she said.

17. “How ugly!” he said.

18. “Did you prepare your meal?” he said. “No” I said.

19. “Happy birthday”, he said.

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trăng tròn. “Take your seat”, he said. “thank”, I said.


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