Cấu trúc ngữ pháp tiếng anh lớp 8

     

A. Các dạng câu thường xuyên gặp:

I. Câu thụ động quánh biệt:

1.Câu bị động với think/believe/say…:a,+CĐ: S (People, They,…..) + say/think/believe…+ that +………-BĐ: S + is/am/are + said/thought/believed…+ to lớn V…………It + is/am/are + said/thought/believed… that +…………b,+CĐ: S (People,They,…..) + said/thought/believed…+ that….-BĐ: S + was/were + said/thought/believed…+ lớn have + V(pII)It + was/were+ said/thought/believed… that +…………Eg: - People believe that 13 is an unlucky number.=> 13 is belived to lớn be an unlucky number.=> It is believed that 13 is an unlucky number.- They thought that Mai had gone away.=> Mai was thought lớn have sầu gone away.=> It was thought that Mai had gone away.

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2. Câu thụ động cùng với “have”:+CĐ: S + have/has/had + sb + V + st+ …….-BĐ: S + have/has/had + st + V(pII) + (by sb)...Eg: I had hlặng repair my bicycle yesterday.=> I had my bicycle repaired yesterday.3. Câu tiêu cực với “get”:+CĐ: S + get/gets/got + sb + lớn V + st +…….-BĐ: S + get/gets/got + st + V(pII) + (by sb)...Eg: I got hyên lớn repair my oto last week.=> I got my car repaired last week.4. Câu bị động với “make”:+CĐ: S + make/made + sb + V + st +……-BĐ: S (sb) + is/are//was/were made + lớn V+ st +……Eg: The step mother made Littele Pea do the chores all day.=> Littele Pea was made to bởi vì the chores all day.5. Need:+CĐ: S + need + to V+ st +……..-BĐ: S (st)+ need + to be V(pII).S (st)+ need+ V-ing.Eg: You need to lớn cut your hair.=>Your hair need to lớn be cut.=> Your hair need cutting.

II. Câu trực tiếp, con gián tiếp:

A, Các dạng câu gửi gián tiếp:1. Câu nghĩa vụ, yêu cầu:- Câu nghĩa vụ, thử khám phá tất cả các dạng:“(Don’t) + V +…..+ (please)”“Will/Would/Can/Could + S + (not) +……+ (please)?”“Would you mind + (not) + V-ing +…..?”=>S + told/asked/warned (chình họa báo)/begged (cầu xin)/ordered (ra lệnh)/reminded (kể nhở)+ O+ (not) toV…Eg: “Listen carefully” The teacher said to us.=>The teacher told/asked us to listen carefully.“Don’t make noise, Jim” The perfect said.=>The perfect ordered Jim not to lớn make noise.“Would you mind putting out your cigarette?”- said a woman.=>A woman reminded me to lớn put out my cigatette.*Câu hưởng thụ cùng với đụng từ trần thuật “asked” gồm dạng:“I’d like+……..”“Can/Could I have+……..”lúc chuyển con gián tiếp ta áp dụng công thức:S+asked(+O)+for+st+…..Eg: In the café,the man said: “I’d lượt thích a cup of tea”.=>The man asked for a cup of tea.2. Lời khuyên:- Lời khuyên có những dạng:“S+should(not)/ought (not) to/had better(not)+V+……..”“Why don’t you+V+…….”“If I were you, I would+V+…….”=>S1+said+(to+O)+that+S2+should+V+…….=>S+advised/encouraged(khuyến khích)+ O+to lớn V+…….Eg: “You should run faster” The teacher said.=>The teacher said that I should run faster.=>The teacher advised me lớn run faster.“Why don’t you take off your coat?” She said.=>She advised me to lớn take off my coat.“If I were you,I would stop smoking” He said.=>He advised me to lớn stop smoking.“Go on,apply for the job”Mrs.Smith said.=> Mrs.Smith encouraged me to apply for the job”3. Câu trằn thuật:Câu è thuật gồm dạng: “S+V(s/es/ed/pI/pII)+…….”=>S+said+that+S+V(lùi thì)+………Eg: “I will have an important contest tomorrow.”She said.=>She said that she would have an important conthử nghiệm the next day.4. Câu hỏi:a, Yes/No questions:Yes/No question tất cả dạng: “Trợ rượu cồn từ+S+V+…..?”=>S1+asked+O+if/whether+S2(O)+V(lùi thì)+……Eg: “Do you lượt thích SNSD?” Seohyun said khổng lồ Kyuhyun.=> Seohyun asked Kyuhyun if/whether he liked SNSD.b, Wh questions:Wh questions tất cả dạng: “Wh+trợ hễ từ+S+V+…..?”=>S1+asked+O+Wh+S2(O)+V(lùi thì)+…….Eg: “Where will you go tomorrow?” She said.=>She asked me Where I would go the next day.5. Lời mời, gợi ý:a, Lời mời:Lời mời bao gồm dạng: “Would you like+Noun/toV+……?”=>S+invited+O+toV+……Eg: “Would you lượt thích to lớn come lớn my birthday party”Su said to lớn Seohyun.=> Su invited Seohyun to come to his birthday các buổi tiệc nhỏ.b, Lời gợi ý:Lời lưu ý tất cả dạng:“Let’s+V+…..!”= “Shall we+V+…..?”“What/How about + V-ing/N +……?”“Why don’t we/you+ V+….?”* Nếu công ty ngữ tsay mê gia vào hành động.( “Let’s + V +…..!” ; “Shall we + V +…..?” ;“What/How about + V-ing/N +……?” “Why don’t we +V+….?”):=>S + suggested + V-ing +……* Nếu công ty ngữ không tđê mê gia vào hành vi nhưng mà chỉ lưu ý cho người khác.( “Why don’tyou+V+….?”)=>S1 + suggested + that + S2 + should + V +……Eg: “Let’s go khổng lồ the movies” The boy said.=>The boy suggested going to lớn the movies.“Why don’t you go out for a drink?” Trung said khổng lồ Nga.=>Trung suggested that Nga should go out for a drink.c, Những câu bao gồm dạng:“I’ll+V+…..+if you like.”“Shall/Can/Could I+V+….?”“Would you like me+toV+…..?”Lúc chuyển gián tiếp ta sử dụng hễ từ bỏ trần thuật “offered” công thức:S+ offered + toV +…….+ if you lượt thích.Eg: “Would you like me to lớn finish the work tonight?=>I’ll finish the work tonight if you like.=>I offered khổng lồ finish the work tonight if you lượt thích.“I’ll do your housework for you if you like” She said.=>She offered to lớn bởi vì my housework for me if I liked.6. Câu cảm thán:- Câu cảm thán bao gồm dạng:“What + (a/an) + adj + Noun!”“How + adj + S + V!”=>S1+exclaimed+that+S2+V/be(lùi thì)+……..Eg: “What a lovely teddy bear!” The girl said.= “How lovely the teddy bear is! The girl said.=>The girl exclaimed that the teddy bear was lovely.

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7. Lời kể nhở:“Remember…” lúc chuyển thanh lịch gián tiếp ta áp dụng kết cấu sau:“Don’t forget…” S + reminded+ sb+ toV+….Eg: She said to me; “Don’t forget to ring me up tomorrow evening”=> She reminded me lớn ring her up the next eveining.8. Sự gật đầu đồng ý về quan điểm như: all right, yes, of course (áp dụng kết cấu sau):S + agreed + to lớn V…Eg: “All right, I’ll wait for you” He said.=> He agreed to wait for me.9. Câu trực tiếp mô tả điều ước muốn như: would lượt thích, wish. khi chuyển gián tiếp áp dụng cấu trúc:S + wanted + O + to lớn V+…Eg: “I’d like Trung to be a famous person.”Trung’s English teacher.=> Trung’s English teacher wanted him lớn be a famous person.10. Từ chối: S + refused + to lớn V +…Eg: ‘No, I won’t lover you my car”=> He refused lớn lend me his oto.11. Lời hứa: S + promised lớn V+…..Eg: ‘I’ll sover you a thẻ on your birthday”=> He promised to skết thúc me a card on my birthday.12. Cảm ơn, xin lỗi:a, Cảm ơn: S + thanked (+O) (for+V-ing/st) +…..Eg: “It was nice of you khổng lồ help me. Thank you very much,” Tom said lớn you.=>Tom thanked me for helping him.b, Xin lỗi: S+ apologized (+khổng lồ O) + for (+not) + (V-ing/st) +…….Eg: “I’m sorry I’m late,” Peter said.=>Peter apologized for being late.13. Chúc mừng:S + congratulated + O + on + V-ing/st+……Eg: John said, “I heard you received the scholarship. Congratulations!”=> John congratulated me on receiving the scholarship.14. Mơ ước:S + dreamed + of + V-ing/st+..…Eg: “I want khổng lồ pass the exam with flying colours,” John said.=> John dreamed of passing the exam with flying colours.“I’ve always wante lớn be rich, ” Bob said .=> Bob had always dreamed of being rich.

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15. Một số câu bắt buộc nhớ:- She said, "Curse(nguyền rủa) this dog!" =>She cursed the dog.- She said, "Luck!" => She wished me luck.- She said, "Thank you very much!" => She thanked me very much.- She said, "Congratulations!" => She congratulated me.- She said, "Traitor(kẻ phản nghịch bội)/Liar(kẻ dối trá)!" => She called me a traitor/liar.- She said, "Happy Christmas!" => She wished me a happy Christmas.- She said, "Hell!(chết tiệt)" => She swore(chửi rủa).- The notice said: "Welcome khổng lồ Edinburgh" => The notice welcomed visitors khổng lồ Edinburgh.- "Good!" he exclaimed => He gave an exclamation of pleasure/satisfaction.- “Ugh(Ối;Eo ơi)!" she exclaimed, and turned the programme off => With an exclamation of disgust(làm phẫn nộ) she turned the programme off.- “Hello John”She said. => She greeted John.16. Các hiệ tượng các thành phần hỗn hợp trong lời nói loại gián tiếp: (mixed forms in reported speech)Lời nói trực tiếp có thể bao gồm nhiều vẻ ngoài lếu láo hợp: câu xác định, thắc mắc, câu trách nhiệm, câu cảm thán:Eg:1. He said, “Can you play the guitar?” and I said “No”He asked me if I could play the guitar và I said that I couldn’t.2. “I don’t know the way. Do you? He asked.He said that he didn’t know the way & asked her if she knew it.3. “I’m going to shopping. Can I get you something? She saidShe said that she was going khổng lồ shopping và asked if she could get me anything.4. “Hello Seohyun!Where are you going now?” Su said.Su greeted và asked Seohyun Where she was going then.

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